Evaluation of Nine Tomato Cultivars under Hi-Tech and Med-Tech Greenhouses

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الصورة
Evaluation of nine tomato cultivars under  Hi and Med-Tech greenhouses
Background

Tomato is one of the most important greenhouse vegetable crops grown in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, with 1260 hectares greenhouse planted area, the average productivity of 8-10 kg/m2 under uncontrolled greenhouses and 35-45 kg/m2 in controlled greenhouses; while the average productivity in other countries – such as Holland – might reach 80-90 kg/m2. This variation in yield is mainly due to crop management, environmental conditions, water quality and type of cultivated variety. In this respect, many commercial tomato varieties are introduced to the Kingdom by private seed companies every year. The selection of variety by local growers depends mainly on productivity and disease resistance. However, the information about the introduced varieties potential production, yield interaction with environmental conditions and crop management is not clear. 

As such, Estidamah Research Center has the capability to evaluate the performance of these commercial varieties under different greenhouse technologies with good crop management. By the end of this project, Estidamah will provide local growers and investors with the needed knowledge regarding the best crop management and greenhouse technologies that improve yield, fruit quality, water, nutrient, energy consumption and efficiency.  

Experimental history

  • Seed Sowing: 11 June
  • Transplanting: 7 July
  • Harvesting period: Med-Tech (31 Weeks) Hi-Tech (46 Weeks)
  • Number of Harvests: Med-Tech (60) Hi-Tech (87)
Objective
This project aimed to compare yield and quality performance of nine tomato cultivars (Tone Guitar, Fulltom, Cal F1, Red Gold, Quaresma, Dutch Standard, Feisty Red, Forrester, Valouro) under different greenhouse technologies at Estidamah Research Centre
Main studied key factors are
  • Two greenhouse types: High-Tech and Med-Tech 
  • Two glass covering materials in Med-Tech (Diffuse and Clear glass)
  • Artificial light in Hi-Tech
Result overview

AC-cooled greenhouse increased marketable yield of tomato cultivars up to 28% than Med-Tech greenhouse

Notes

  • Clearly, the production of the Dutch variety exceeds other varieties in all compartments.
  • Red Gold resulted in a lesser total yield than other cultivars.
  • No difference is found between Diffuse and Clear Glass Covering Materials.
الصورة

 

الصورة

Artificial Light Improved Production of Year-round Tomato Cultivars under Hi-Tech Greenhouse

Notes

  • Artificial light technology produced a 10% more tomato marketable yield.
  • Fulltom cultivar showed the highest impact by artificial light.
  • Ton Guitar cultivar did not respond to artificial light.

 

الصورة

 

الصورة

Hi-Tech Greenhouses Slightly Increased Number of Fruits per Plant, while no Differences were Found between Diffuse and Clear Glass under Med-Tech Greenhouses

Notes

  • Tone Guitar recorded a smaller number of fruits under diffuse glass.
  •  Dutch cultivar showed the best fruit number compared to other cultivars under clear glass.
الصورة

 

الصورة

 

 

Artificial Light Increased Number of Tomato Fruits per Plant up to 11%

Notes

  • Dutch cultivar showed the best number of fruits compared to other cultivars.
  • Red Gold and Forrester resulted in a lesser number of fruits than other cultivars in normal condition, while application of artificial light remarkably improved the Forrester number of fruits.
الصورة

 

الصورة

 

 

Significant differences between tomato cultivars regarding BER percentage

Notes

  • Valouro and Forrester are the most sensitive cultivars, while Tone Guitar, Red Gold and Feisty Red are moderately sensitive.
  • Fulltom, Call F1, Quaresma and Dutch Standard are the least sensitive cultivars.

 

الصورة

 

Net water use in Hi-Tech greenhouse is 75 % lesser than the water use in the Mid-Tech greenhouse, with a higher production

Water use efficiency (WUE) was much lesser in Hi-Tech greenhouse

No difference was found between artificial light or no-light in Hi-Tech greenhouse

Notes

  • Vaouro and Forester are the most sensitive cultivars, while Tone Guitar, Red Gold NAD Festy red are moderately sensitive
  • Fulltom, Call F1, Quaresma and Dutch standard are the least sensitive cultivars

 

6 Months

One Year

 

Mid-Tech Diffuse glass

Mid-Tech Clear glass

Hi-Tech Art. Light

Hi-Tech No-light 

 

Hi-Tech Art. Light

Irrigation

1232

1224

2340

2340

2340

Drain

340

319

626

626

626

Irrigation-drain

892

905

1714

1714

1714

Cooling

1907

1684

0

0

0

Condensation 

0

0

1226

1226

1226

Net water use 

2798

2589

488

488

488

Yield

42

41

49

65

71

WUE

67

63

10

7.5

6.9

Water use for the different compartments in l/m2

Recommendation

  • High yield cultivars could be introduced to the local market, however hygiene practices must be adapted.
  • Greenhouse cover materials did not affect tomato production.
  • CO2 enrichment is the limited factor of increasing yield and number of fruits under Hi-tech as compared to Med-tech.
  • Further investigation is needed to optimize BER and Artificial light under the Hi-Tech greenhouse.
  • Hi-Tech greenhouses improved WUE by 85% as compared to Med-Tech greenhouses.